ISTN has recently developed a novel process for the production of a low molecular weight protamine (LMWP). In initial studies, LMWP has shown excellent promise in a variety of biomedical related applications.

Heparin Neutralization - LMWP seeks to replace native protamine as the primary compound for the neutralization of heparin. While protamine has been shown to be effective in neutralizing the anti-coagulation effects of heparin, it has also shown significant toxic side effects in a growing number of patients. It has recently been estimated that more than 2% of patients treated with protamine experience fatal reactions. ISTN has shown, using canine models, that LMWP does not produce the fatal hemodynamic changes common after protamine administration. Besides not inducing drastic hemodynamic changes, LMWP does not exhibit a significant reduction in white blood cell (WBC) counts, in comparison to an 18% drop in WBC counts observed after intravenous protamine administration.

In addition to LMWP’s reduced toxicity, recent ISTN experiments have shown that LMWP can effectively neutralize heparin and low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). The decreased toxicity of LMWP, compared to protamine, allows for the higher dosages required for LMWH neutralization. Based on ISTN findings, LMWP is less toxic than protamine while maintaining a comparable efficacy in the neutralization of heparin.

Long Acting Insulin - LMWP has been shown to be a possible replacement for native protamine as the primary insulin conjugate within intermediate and long acting insulin solutions. LMWP is formed by a controlled enzymatic digestion of protamine yielding a smaller, truncated protein that maintains protamine’s electrochemical properties while reducing its exhibited toxicity. In addition to LMWP’s reduced toxicity, recent ISTN experiments have shown that the LMWP-insulin conjugate is as effective as protamine-insulin conjugates in intermediate and long acting control of blood-glucose levels. Based on ISTN findings, LMWP is safer than protamine while providing a comparable efficacy in intermediate and long lasting insulin formulations.

Membrane Transduction


ISTN is the sole owner of intellectual property related to this technology and is seeking collaborations with parties interesting in pursuing further development of this compound.

Inquiries regarding this material and/or the purchase of LMWP samples for research purposes, please contact us at:


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